ARTICLE I. OFFICES
The initial registered office of the corporation shall belocated at RD 2 - Box 117, Kittanning PA 16201, in the Township of Valley in the County of Armstrong. The corporation may have such other offices within the State of Pennsylvania as the Board of Directors may determine or as the affairs of the corporation may require from time to time. The registered office may be, but need not be, identical with the principal office, and the address of the registered office may be changed from time to time by the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE II. PURPOSES
The purposes of this corporation are:
(1) To confer diplomas upon graduates of Pennsylvania home education programs based both on the requirements for high school graduation from home education programs established by the Pennsylvania School Code and upon additional standards for the purpose of promoting excellence at the high school level asprovided by the By-Laws of the corporation.
(2) To provide at least one annual graduation ceremony for home education high school graduates in Pennsylvania.
(3) To facilitate communication among home educated high school students by means such as, but not limited to, publishing a student newsletter.
(4) To promote the recognition of the Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency diploma as a valid high school diploma.
(5) To collect and disseminate information about the success and the adult activities of home education high school graduates.
(6) To otherwise engage in activities which provide encouragement, leadership, and assistance to home education at the high school level.
(7) To serve the home education community without regard to gender, race, religion, national origin or political beliefs. Therefore neither membership, nor elected position, nor employment, will be restricted to subscribers to any particular faith nor will religious expression be prohibited in the publications or ceremonies of this corporation.
ARTICLE III. MEMBERS
SECTION 1. CLASSES OF MEMBERS. The corporation shall have three classes of members. All classes shall have the same voting rights and privileges. The designation of such classes and the qualification of such classes shall be as follows:
(1) SUPERVISOR-MEMBERS. Supervisor-Members shall consist of the supervisors of high school home education programs who have filed the Filing Form and paid the Filing Fee (see Article XII,Section 1) for a current high school student. A married couple shall constitute a single Supervisor-Member. The membership of Supervisor-Members continues from the time that the Filing Fee is paid (which can be as early as the beginning of ninth grade) until the conclusion of the graduation ceremony closest to Harrisburg at the conclusion of the year in which the student is expected to graduate unless an extension is granted.
(2) EVALUATOR-MEMBERS. Evaluator-Members shall consist of evaluators of home education high school programs who have filed their credentials with Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency, have agreed in writing to abide by the requirements of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency when signing transcript forms for Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency Diplomas, and who agree to be included as an evaluator who can accept credits for a Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency diploma in published listings of Evaluator-Members.
(3) BOARD MEMBERS. Members of the Board of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency will be members of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency.
SECTION 2. MEMBERS AND GRADUATES AT TIME OF INCORPORATION. Members of the unincorporated high school diploma program that these bylaws incorporate will be given the equivalent membership status in the corporation and graduates of the unincorporated association will be recognized as graduates of the corporation.
SECTION 3. VOTING RIGHTS OF MEMBERS. All members will have the same voting right. One member one vote. Even when a member is qualified for membership in two or more classes, he or she will have a single vote. In the case of a married couple acting together as a single supervisor-member, that couple shall have only one vote.
SECTION 4. TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP. The Board of Directors, by affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of the Board, may suspend or expel a member for cause. When the membership of an Evaluator-Member is terminated, his or her signature will no longer be accepted on transcript forms of current or future students unless and until that Evaluator-Member is reinstated (see Section 7).
SECTION 5. RESIGNATION. Any member may resign by filing a written resignation with the Secretary.
SECTION 6. SUSPENSION OF MEMBERSHIP. Membership is suspended whenever a member moves without supplying the corporation with his or her new address, or in the case of Alumni members, when that member allows his or her subscription to lapse. Suspension can be ended, at the discretion of the board, if the suspended member supplies his or her new address to the corporation or resubscribes, whichever is appropriate.
SECTION 7. REINSTATEMENT. Reinstatement of membership of resigned or terminated members will be subject to the approval ofthe board. Upon written request filed with the Secretary, the Board of Directors may, by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of the Board, reinstate such former member upon such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors may deem appropriate.
SECTION 8. TRANSFER OF MEMBERSHIP. Membership in this corporation is not transferable or assignable except between spouses.
ARTICLE IV. MEETINGS OF MEMBERS
SECTION 1. ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP MEETING. At the discretion of the Board of Directors, the Annual Membership Meeting will either take place: (1) at a state-wide conference sponsored by this corporation or (2) on the same date as, and at a place convenient to, the graduation ceremony that is closest to Harrisburg or (3) by means of the Internet or other electronic communications technology in a fashion pursuant to which the members have the opportunity to read or hear the proceedings substantially concurrent with their occurrence, vote on matters submitted to the members, pose questions to the directors, make appropriate motions and comment on the business of the meeting. The business of the meeting will be to elect a director(s) for the Board of Directors (see Section 4) and to propose, discuss and possibly submit for ballot by mail changes in the By-Laws of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency (See Section 5 and Article XV). The Executive Director will chair the meeting and may limit discussion in order to proceed expeditiously with the business of the meeting.
SECTION 2. NOTICE OF MEETING. The Executive Director shall provide written notice of the Annual Membership Meeting to all members. Such notice will include the place, day, and hour of the meeting and any other information required by law.
SECTION 3. QUORUM. No quorum of the membership will be necessary for business to take place at the Annual Membership Meeting.
SECTION 4. MANNER OF ELECTING A DIRECTOR. Nominations may be submitted in writing to the Executive Director or the Secretary at least one week before the annual membership meeting. Nominations may also occur from the floor. All nominations must be accompanied by a statement from the nominee stating that he or she will serve if elected. If a Director is elected by a plurality of the vote at the membership meeting, he or she will immediately replace the Director whose term has expired and can participate in the next meeting of the Board of Directors.
SECTION 5. PROPOSAL OF AMENDMENTS. Amendments to these By-Laws may be proposed and voted upon at the Annual Membership Meeting. Those proposals receiving a plurality of the vote at the Annual Membership Meeting shall be submitted to the membership for a vote by mail as specified in Article XV.
ARTICLE V. BOARD OF DIRECTORS
SECTION 1. GENERAL POWERS. The affairs of the corporation shall be managed by its Board of Directors. Directors need not be residents of the State of Pennsylvania or members of the corporation.
SECTION 2. NUMBER, TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS: The initial number of Directors shall be 6. The Board of Directors through a 2/3 vote of the Directors present when a quorum is present may expand the number of directors with the additional director or directors being elected at the next membership meeting. Except in the case of directors filling vacancies left by the resignation or death of a director or in the case of initial directors as specified in Section 3, each director will hold office for a term of six years with his or her term ending at the conclusion of an annual membership meeting of members.
SECTION 3. INITIAL DIRECTORS. The initial Board of Directorsof the Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency werechosen at the annual membership meeting of the unincorporated association. Their dates of term expiration are the following: (1) Howard B. Richman - July 2001, (2) Debra G. Newell - July 2000, (3) Nina B. Keith - July 1999, (4) Donald P. Hill - July 1998, (5) Karen Boyd - July 1997, (6) Susan P. Richman - July 1996.
SECTION 4. REGULAR MEETINGS. The Board of Directors will meet immediately following the annual membership meeting and at the same location. Members are welcome to attend the regular meeting of the Board of Directors.
SECTION 5. SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the Executive Director or any two Directors and shall take place at a time and place in Pennsylvania chosen by the Executive Director or at a time and place in Pennsylvania designated in writing by a petition signed by a majority of the Board.
SECTION 6. NOTICE. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be given at least fourteen days previously thereto by written notice delivered personally or sent by mail, or telegram, to each Director at his or her address as shown by the records of the corporation. If the time and place of the meeting is chosen by the Executive Director as specified inSection 5, then the Executive Director shall give the notice. If the time and place of the meeting is chosen by a petition signed by a majority of the Board, then a copy of that petition will be included with the notice and the notice may be given by any one of the members of the Board who have signed the petition. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail in a sealed envelope so addressed, with postage thereon prepaid. If notice is by telegram, such notice shall be deemed to be given when the telegram is delivered to the telegraph company. Any Director may waive notice of any meeting. The attendance of a Director at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where a Director attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board need be specified in the notice or waiver of notice of such meeting, unless specifically required by law or by these By-Laws.
SECTION 7. QUORUM. A majority of the Board of Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Board; but if less than a majority of the Directors is present at said meeting, a majority of the Directors present may adjourn the meeting without further notice.
SECTION 8. MANNER OF ACTING. The act of a majority of Directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, unless the act of a greater number is required by law or by these By-Laws.
SECTION 9. VACANCIES. Any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors, though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors. A Director elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his or her predecessor in office.
SECTION 10. COMPENSATION: Directors as such shall not receive any stated salaries for their services, but by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and expenses of attendance, if any, may be allowed for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board; but nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any Director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefore.
SECTION 11. INFORMAL ACTION BY DIRECTORS. Any action required by law to be taken at a meeting of directors, or any action which may be taken at a meeting of directors, may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by all of the Directors.
SECTION 12. POWERS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. The powers of the Board of Directors will include any other powers permitted by law and not delegated to specific officers or to the membership by these By-Laws.
ARTICLE VI. OFFICERS
SECTION 1. OFFICERS. The officers of the corporation shall be an Executive Director, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers as it shall deem desirable, such officers to have the authority to perform the duties prescribed from time to time, by the Board of Directors. Officers may be, but do not have to be, members of the Board of Directors and/or of the corporation.
SECTION 2. ELECTION AND TERM OF OFFICE. The officers of the corporation shall be elected at any meeting of the Board of Directors during which there is a vacancy for that office and will serve until such time as a vacancy in the position occurs due to the officer's death, resignation, removal, disqualification or otherwise.
SECTION 3. REMOVAL. Any officer may be removed by the Board of Directors through a 2/3 vote of the Directors present when a quorum is present whenever in its judgment the best interests of the corporation would be served thereby, but such removal will be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the officer so removed.
SECTION 4. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR. The Executive Director is the principal executive officer of the corporation in charge of carrying out the resolutions of the Board of Directors and shall, in general, supervise or carry out all of the business and affairs of the corporation including contracts, publications, events, and meetings, except where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors or by these By-Laws or by statute to some other officer or agent of the corporation. He or she shall maintain appropriate, complete, and accurate books, or records of account kept at the principal office with summaries provided to the Treasurer (see Section 5), and in general perform all other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time. He or she will be a paid employee of the corporation under contract with the corporation. The terms of his or her contract will be set by resolution of the Board. If required by the Board of Directors, the Executive Director shall give a bond for the faithful discharge of his orher duties in such sum and with such surety or sureties as the Board of Directors shall determine.
SECTION 5. TREASURER. The treasurer shall receive from the Executive Director at least quarterly financial reports and a yearly summary which will be mailed to him or her by the Executive Director on or before the following April 15. Also, he or she may request any financial records from the Executive Director at any time. Also, the Treasurer may require an audit of the books at any time; such an audit would be paid for by the corporation. He or she shall also perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the Board of Directors. If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give a bond for the faithful discharge of his or her duties in such sum and with such surety or sureties as the Board ofDirectors shall determine.
SECTION 6. SECRETARY. The Secretary shall be responsible for the keeping of the minutes of the meetings of the members and of the Board of Directors in one or more books provided for that purpose; see that all notices are duly given when not the responsibility of the Executive Director and when required by law; be custodian of the corporate records; keep copies of the transcripts and evaluation letters of all graduates including copies mailed to him or her by the Executive Director on or before September 1 each year; keep a copy of the list of the current members of each class as provided to him or her by the Executive Director shortly before the start of the annual membership meeting; receive and count ballots and record the result of a vote for a By-Laws change (see Article XV); and in general perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary and such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall endeavor to keep all copies of membership and graduate records under his or her custody at a location other than that of the principal office so that a fire would not destroy both the original records and their copies.
SECTION 7. CONTRACTS WITH DIRECTORS. No Director may vote on any resolution of the Board of Directors pertaining to a contractor transaction if that Director has a financial interest in the contract. However, those Directors who disqualify themselves from voting on such a resolution may make up part of the quorum of the meeting at which such a vote takes place, and such a contract or transaction can be approved by the Board of Directors if the affirmative votes of a majority of those disinterested Directors present at the meeting authorize the contract or transaction.
ARTICLE VII. BOOKS AND RECORDS
The corporation shall keep correct and complete books and records of account and shall also keep minutes of the proceedings of its members and Board of Directors. Such records will be kept at the principal office of the corporation. All books and records of the corporation may be inspected by any member, or his or her agent or attorney, for any proper purpose at any reasonable time.
ARTICLE VIII. FISCAL YEAR
The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the last day of December in each year.
ARTICLE IX. SEAL
The corporate seal shall be in the form of a circle and have inscribed therein the words Pennsylvania Homeschoolers and in the center the words Accreditation Agency. It shall be kept in the custody of the Executive Director and the seal shall be affixed to official transcripts (See Article X, Section 3).
ARTICLE X. WAIVER OF NOTICE
Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of the Nonprofit Corporation Law of 1988 of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania or under the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation or the By-Laws of the corporation, a waiver thereof in writing signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the giving of such notice.
ARTICLE XI. PHAA PUBLICATION
Where the words PHAA Publication appear in these By-Laws they refer to Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency's student publication, The Excelsior, which will be published on Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency's website. Notification of publication of each issue will be emailed to all members of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency. Whenever a bylaws ballot will be included in that issue as specified in Article XV, that email will alert members to that ballot.
ARTICLE XII. FEES
SECTION 1. FILING FEE. A Filing Fee shall be paid by the supervisor of a home education program in order to open a file for his or her high school level student who is a student in a home education program and such payment shall entitle the supervisor to membership (see Article III, Section 1).
SECTION 2. DIPLOMA REQUEST FEE. A Diploma Request Fee paid by a Supervisor-Member must be paid before the unsigned but numbered and sealed diploma is mailed or given to the Supervisor-Member.
SECTION 3. TRANSCRIPT FEE. A transcript fee is payable each time a request is made by the Supervisor or the Student or the Graduate to send out a copy of the transcript to an employer or college or any other location (see Article XIV, Section 2).
SECTION 4. EVALUATOR FEE. An annual fee may be charged for the membership of Evaluator-Members.
SECTION 5. AMOUNT OF FEES. In the absence of a Board resolution setting the level of a fee, that level may be set by the Executive Director. The amount of any or all fees, however, may be changed by a resolution of the Board of Directors. Fees other than those enumerated in this article may be charged by the corporation; however, no fees other than those enumerated in this article will be required in order for a student to receive adiploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency.
ARTICLE XIII. FORMS NECESSARY FOR GRADUATION
SECTION 1. FILING FORM. The Filing Form for a student which accompanies the Filing Fee (see Article XII, Section 1), must be filed in order for a student to graduate with a diploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency.
SECTION 2. DIPLOMA REQUEST FORM. The Diploma Request Form for a student which accompanies the Diploma Request Fee (see Article XII, Section 1) must be filed in order for a student to graduate with a diploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency. The diploma request form shall include a written verification from the supervisor of the home education program that he or she has not received notice that a review for non-compliance of the candidate's home education program by the district of residence superintendent has been filed or that a due-process hearing is pending (as provided in Section 1327.1), and that he or she will notify the corporation immediately if such contact occurs. Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency shall not issue or honor a diploma for any student whose educational program is under review or pending a hearing for non-compliance until such time as the review is completed and the superintendent or hearing officer has determined that appropriate education has occurred.
SECTION 3. SCHOOL TRANSCRIPT. If a student has attended aschool during his or her high school years, official transcripts from any school(s) attended by the student during the high school years must be filed in order for a student to graduate with a diploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency.
SECTION 4. PROPERLY COMPLETED HOME EDUCATION TRANSCRIPT. A properly completed home education transcript must be filed in order for a student to graduate with a diploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency. In order to be properly completed it must include:
(1) The signature of an evaluator (as specified in Section 6) for the credits awarded each year of home education.
(2) The Supervisor-Member's signature to the statement that the student has met all of the requirements for graduation from ahome education program and that the home education program was in full compliance with Pennsylvania law at the time of graduation.
(3) When combined with the school transcript specified in Section 3, the transcript must indicate that the student's program met the Requirements for Graduation in Article XIV, Section 3.
SECTION 5. EVALUATION LETTERS. Evaluation letters for the year(s) during which the student has been home educated in Pennsylvania must be filed for a student to graduate with a diploma from Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency.
SECTION 6. EVALUATOR. Where the signature or action of an evaluator is required in these bylaws the evaluator can be either an Evaluator-Member or a non-member evaluator as specified in Section 7.
SECTION 7. NON-MEMBER EVALUATOR. At the time of incorporation, it was the policy of the corporation to honor the signatures and diplomas of non-member evaluators who have agreed in writing to sign the transcripts of the Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency based upon the standards and procedures of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency. This policy may be changed by resolution of the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE XIV. STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES
SECTION 1. DIPLOMAS. Diplomas will be numbered and will include the embossed seal of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency and the student's name properly affixed. They will include a space for the signature of the senior year evaluator of the home education program and for the supervisor of the home education program.
SECTION 2. TRANSCRIPTS. Transcripts with attached evaluation letters will be sent to prospective employers and colleges upon receipt of a signed written request from the supervisor or the student and receipt of the transcript fee specified in Article XII, Section 3.
SECTION 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION. In order to graduate from a home education program, a student must complete all of the courses that are required by Pennsylvania law during high school (grades 9 through 12). These requirements are: (1) Four years ofEnglish, (2) Three years of mathematics, (3) Three years of science, (4) Three years of social studies, (5) Two years of arts and humanities.
The requirement for four years of English indicates that four years must be spent at the high school level (grades 9 through 12) in order for the student to graduate. High school students may participate in vocational programs where they spend part-time doing academics and part-time working on vocational activities.
Since four years are not required for other subjects, it will not be necessary for the student to take a course in every subject area each year. It is significant, for example, that public school students are required to take 1/4 of a year of physical education each year during high school in order to graduate, while home education programs have no physical education requirement during high school.
The home education law specifies further course requirements for the secondary level (grades 7 through 12). Therefore, whichever of these courses were not taken during 7th or 8th grade must be taken during high school. The interpretation of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency is that at least one half year of each of the following subjects must be taken some time within grades 7 to 12: (1) Geography, (2) Civics, (3) World history, (4) History of the U. S. and Pennsylvania, (5) General mathematics, (6) Algebra, (7) Geometry, (8) Safety education including fire safety, (9) Health and physiology, (10) Physical education, (11) Music, and (12) Art.
SECTION 4. ENGLISH COURSES. According to Pennsylvania's home education law, the following areas are included in the secondary English course requirement: literature, composition, language, and speech. It is not clear from the phrasing in the law whether these four areas are separate courses, or whether they are all to be incorporated into each English course. In order to insure that its graduates are fully literate, Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency requires that each of these areas be incorporated into each year of high school English. Please note that it is quite possible to integrate these English requirements into work in other subject areas. For example the literature requirement could involve reading biographies that are part of history work, the composition requirement could include writing a science paper, and the speech requirement could be a speech on a religious topic for a humanities course.
In order to complete the minimum requirement for English, a student must meet all of the following each year:
(1) LITERATURE. Student will read at least twenty-five books in any subject area, fiction or non-fiction, including three classics. A list of titles of books read including at least twenty-five titles will demonstrate that a student has met this requirement. A literature anthology textbook or ten books of the Bible can be substituted for 10 of the required books. At the discretion of the evaluator the quality and length of books read can be taken into consideration in order to accept credit for a student who has not met the quantity requirement.
(2) COMPOSITION AND LANGUAGE. In order to meet the composition requirement, the student will write one long composition at least 10 pages (2500 words) long (typed double spaced or handwritten single spaced) and at least 3 other compositions. At the discretion of the evaluator, other combinations of compositions of similar total length may be accepted. In order to meet the language requirement, rough drafts which show that punctuation, usage, and/or grammatical errors were corrected in the process of writing these compositions will be accepted. Alternatively, the language requirement can be met through completion of over 1/4 of a language or grammar textbook or at least 45 daily logged entries of work in language or grammar study.
(3) SPEECH. Student must give at least one speech during theyear to a group outside of the immediate family. The speech may be delivered in English or in American Sign Language. Any one of the following will be accepted as proof that the student met this requirement: (a) a picture showing the student giving the speech,(b) notes which the student used when giving the speech, (c) a program from the event where the speech was given, (d) recognition from the organizers of the event where the speech was given, (e) a description of the event and speech, written by the student or parent, (f) any other evidence that a speech was given at the discretion of the evaluator.
Alternatively, the minimum requirement for English can be satisfied by successful completion of the required speech and two English college courses within the same school year or successful completion of the required speech and any AP English class whose syllabus has been approved by the College Board's audit procedure.
SECTION 5. COURSES IN OTHER SUBJECT AREAS. Any one of the following alternatives will be accepted as evidence of completion of one year of credit for courses in other subject areas:
(1) Completion of over two-thirds of a textbook. (1/3 to 2/3 of a textbook counts as 1/2 year of credit.)
(2) At least 120 daily logged entries of study and/or activities related to the course content. These logged entries should be more than a simple check of subject. They should include brief descriptive notations. (60 to 119 entries counts as 1/2 year of credit.)
(3) Logged entries describing at least 120 hours of study and/or activities related to the course content. (60 to 119 hours of logged entries counts as 1/2 year of credit.)
(4) Completion of a research paper of at least 10 pages (2500 words) in length (typed double spaced or handwritten singl espaced) using at least three non-encyclopedic references which demonstrates, at the discretion of the evaluator, learning of a course subject and includes the student's own conclusions based upon his or her research.
(5) Completion of a college course.
(6) Completed AP course whose syllabus was approved by the College Board audit process and took exam. Or completed preparatory work for a College Level Examination Program (CLEP) exam, DANTES Subject Standardized Test (DSST) exam, or similar equivalent exam that is recognized for college credit and passed exam.
(7) Any other evidence of completion of a course at the discretion of the evaluator.
SECTION 6. COURSE TITLES. Any of these course titles will be acceptable. Others may be acceptable at the discretion of the evaluator.
(1) ENGLISH COURSES. English courses will be English 9, English 10, English 11, and English 12.
(2) MATHEMATICS COURSES. Mathematics options include algebra, business mathematics, calculus, computer science, consumer mathematics, general mathematics, geometry, and trigonometry.
(3) SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES. Social studies options include American cultures, ancient history, anthropology, civics, economics, geography, history, history of the U.S. and Pennsylvania, modern history, Pennsylvania history, political science, psychology, sociology, United States history, world cultures, and world history.
(4) SCIENCE COURSES. Science options include astronomy, biological science, biology, chemical science, chemistry, ecology, earth science, environmental science, general science, geology, physical science, and physics. Three of the options, biology, chemistry, and physics, are called "laboratory sciences" in the public school regulations and should have a hands-on component.
(5) ARTS AND HUMANITIES COURSES. Arts and humanities options include art history, Bible, dance, film studies, foreign languages (Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German, ...), music, music history, music theory, philosophy, practical arts and crafts, theater, theology, and visual arts. Extra English or history courses can be used to meet the arts and humanities requirement. Families who plan for their children to go to college should be aware that most colleges require that their applicants have completed two years of a foreign language.
SECTION 7. TRANSFER CREDITS. We accept transfer credits. If a student transfers to home education from a school, credit for school courses completed will be accepted by Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency upon receipt of the school transcript. Such a transfer student would have to complete a minimum of 180 days in a compliant home education program during their senior year as of June 30. Transfer credits earned after July 1, 1999, with grades of "D" and its equivalent or less will not be accepted. Where homeschoolers have not kept good documentation in the past, the evaluators, at their discretion, may choose to accept credits for previous years of homeschooling based upon interviews with the parent and student. Evaluators should be especially liberal in accepting past credits for long-term homeschooled students who move to Pennsylvania from other states.
SECTION 8. HOW CREDITS ARE AWARDED. Supervisor-Members award credits to their current students and the evaluator accepts those credits by signing his or her name on the Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency transcript forms. Evaluators shall not issue or sign a PHAA transcript unless the student is a member of PHAA as indicated by an assigned PHAA number. The Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency, in turn, accepts all credits that are accepted by an evaluator (see Article XIII, Section 6).
SECTION 9. HANDICAPPED PROVISION. It is the intention of Pennsylvania Homeschoolers Accreditation Agency to award diplomas to handicapped home-educated students who are achieving up to their potential. Therefore, any of these requirements may be waived by the evaluator if he or she deems them inappropriate to a handicapped student, and if the evaluator mentions, in the evaluation letter, that the student is handicapped.
SECTION 10. QUALITY COUNTS. Parents are urged to set standards of quality for their children's work in order to make meeting these requirements a meaningful activity for their children.
In the letters of evaluation which will be attached to the transcripts, evaluators are urged to recognize: (1) high-quality work, (2) service activities, and (3) individual initiative demonstrated by the student. Furthermore, these letters of evaluation must include a substantive narrative containing observations of the specific home education program. Evaluators who violate this provision shall be prohibited from renewing their PHAA membership.
When the word "Honors" appears as part of a course title on the transcript, it shall indicate either: (1) special honors received by the student as part of the course, or (2) great initiative shown by the student as part of the course. Such a designation must be supported by an explanation by the evaluator in the evaluation letter which specifies why the course is being considered to be an honors course.
When "AP" or "Advanced Placement" appears as part of a course title on the transcript, it shall indicate that the student has taken the Advanced Placement exam for the test specified by the course title. The Advanced Placement test score should be added to the transcript once it becomes available.
When a college course appears on the transcript, the name of the college shall be indicated and the grade shall reflect the grade given by the college.
ARTICLE XV. AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS
SECTION 1: ADVERTISING BY-LAWS CHANGE. The Executive Director shall advertise all submitted changes to the By-Laws (See ArticleIV, Section 5) by placing them on a written ballot published in the PHAA publication or mailed to each member. Such ballot will include all of the following: (1) The wording of the motionor motions each followed by the words YES and NO, (2) The address of the Secretary to which the ballot shall be returned, (3) The deadline by which the ballot must be mailed when returned, (4) Aspace for the member to print his name, (5) A space for themember to sign his name.
SECTION 2: COUNTING THE BALLOTS. The Secretary shall count the ballots. In order to be valid, a ballot must: (1) be signed by amember of record at the time of the membership meeting, (2) be in an envelope postmarked on or before the deadline, and (3) include the name of the member in fashion sufficiently legible to determine which member sent in the ballot (see Article III).
SECTION 3. RESULT OF THE VOTE. An affirmative vote by at least 3/4 of the members voting on a specific resolution passes that resolution. A list of all members who voted and how they voted will be mailed to any member who sends a written request for such a list to the Secretary within six months of the deadline for the vote accompanied by a Stamped Self-Addressed Envelope. Any member, or his or her agent or attorney, may inspect all of the ballots, which will remain in the possession of the Secretary forat least six months after the deadline (see Section 2).
SECTION 4. ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULT OF THE VOTE. The result ofthe vote, in terms of whether or not the amendment was passed,will be advertised by the Executive Director in the PHAA publication.
SECTION 5. ADOPTION OF BY-LAWS. In accordance with 15 Pa.C.S.Section 5310, the Board of Directors at its organizationalmeeting held on January 1, 1996 adopted these By-Laws asindicated by their signatures hereto:
[The original copy of the bylaws was signed here by Howard B. Richman, Debra G. Newell. Nina B. Keith. Donald P. Hill, Karen Boyd, and Susan P. Richman.]